Induction Course

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SOP No. Nil
SOP Title Induction Course
Author Anfo
Revision No. 1.1
Implementation Date 21 AUG 15
Last Review Date 08 AUG 17
Reviewed By Anfo

Purpose

The Induction Course is an initiation that a new Recruit is exposed to, forming the first part of a future training regime for all clan members. To ensure that the subjects covered in the induction are offered at the highest standard, this SOP aims to document the subject matter to be taught and outcomes expected.

Scope

This SOP is a guide for NCO's and senior Privates who may be tasked with delivering the subject matter within the Induction Course.

Prerequisites

A trainer tasked with delivering the Induction Course subject matter must be knowledgeable in the subject matter. Experience in delivering information to small groups is also advantageous.

Responsibilities

  • Lead Trainer: An NCO or senior Private with the responsibility of delivering the subject matter;
  • Support: Other NCO's or Privates who volunteer to provide services to demonstrate or support the subject matter;
  • Recruit: New member participating as a trainee in the course.

Procedure

The procedure outlines here covers the theory and practice of each of the subjects delivered in the Induction Course. The subject matter to be discussed, but not necessarily delivered in this order are:

  1. ACE (Advanced Combat Environment) Basic Medical System,
  2. Basic Advanced Combat Radio Environment (ACRE) and RATEL,
  3. Target Indication,
  4. Infantry Patrolling and Formations,
  5. Helicopter Infiltration and Exfiltration, and
  6. Section Weapon familiarisation and qualification.

1. ACE Medical System

Since the final release of ACE or Advanced Combat Environment, the medical sub-component has been adopted as the default medical application system during 39th Battalion Operations. ACE for Arma 3 adds a wide variety of game alterations and improvements; however the basic medical component is the only facet that is covered during induction. Further, ACE medical allows for either a Basic or Advanced model of medical treatment; however Basic is the currently adopted methodology.

Basic Medical Treatment

A soldier may afflicted in battle by numerous forms of trauma that would require interaction with ACE to treat. Depending on the severity of the wounds and duration to which they remain untreated with determine the success of patient recovery. The Basic Medical System offers the following dressings and drugs that would be used during treatment. Some like Epinephrine are only dispensable by a dedicated Combat Medic or Squad Leader:

  • Bandage: The bandage/dressing system used is in the form of a green, small sealed package used to treat initial wounds on all appendages of a victims body. The item consumes little inventory space allowing each member to carry a sizable quantity. The Combat Medic in particular would carry enough to treat all members of a squad on multiple occasions as required;
  • Morphine: Morphine is an opiate used to reduce pain as a consequence of wounds. A symptom of pain and hence the application of Morphine is a white pulsing "halo" surrounding the victim's point of view;
  • Epinephrine: Epinephrine (also known as Adrenalin) is a medication delivered using an auto-injector to stimulate hormone and neurotransmitter function. The goal is to resuscitate a patient in the event of unconsciousness or cardiac arrest in more serious cases. The Combat medic and Squad Leaders are the only classes offered the responsibility of injecting Ephineprine;
  • 500mL Blood Bag: Another asset exclusive to the Combat Medic for reintroducing blood to the patient in the event of excessive loss. No blood type matching is required,
  • Tourniquet: A constricting or compressing device, specifically a wide rubber band, used to control venous and arterial circulation to an extremity for a period of time.

A casualty of a battle wound can be in either a conscious or unconscious state. If you are the casualty and you are conscious and a CFA is not available, then a soldier must be prepared to treat themselves. Provided a casualty is not classified as Dead, then treatment and revival is possible; however probability of a lapse into unconsciousness or a full recovery is dependent on the expediency of treatment. In more advanced circumstances where blood transfusions and/or epinephrine treatment are required a CFA must be available.

  1. Ensure that the casualty and/or Medic are (preferably) away from danger that may further impede treatment or worsen a casualties symptoms,
  2. Where multiple avulsions wounds occur on limbs, apply tourniquets to cease further blood loss,
  3. Bandage large avulsions and velocity wounds on torso or head, prioritising Red wounds followed by Yellow. White indicates no damage and hence no treatment is necessary,
  4. Bandage large avulsions and velocity wounds on limbs remembering to remove tourniquets if applied,
  5. Check vital signs (Heart rate and Blood Pressure). In the event of cardiac arrest (no heart rate) inject 1x epinephine and begin CPR, check heart rate after each use of CPR until a pulse is found.
  6. Return BP to at least 80/X before proceeding.
  7. Treat pain with a Morphine in preparation for resuscitation (if necessary). Morphine can only be administered via a patient's appendage,
  8. If the casualty remains unconscious at this point, an injection of Epinephrine (via appendage only) by the Combat First Aider (CFA) to resuscitate if required. If resuscitation is still not successful then further diagnosis and treatment by the CFA may be required to determine if any preliminary treatments were inadequate or overlooked.

Trainee Outcomes

The trainee is to demonstrate knowledge in this subject by:

  1. Correctly identify the drugs and dressings used by the ACE Basic Medical System;
  2. Using the correct in-game ACE menu system demonstrate how to diagnose a casualty;
  3. From diagnosis, determine the correct treatment in the applicable succession.

2. Advanced Combat Radio Environment (ACRE)

Advanced Combat Radio Environment (ACRE) is the name given to the third party developed software simulation of real world military radio systems for Arma 3. Short and long range radios modeled on real world examples are reproduced in game. Features and limitations include unique frequency setting, antenna direction and signal interference due to extended distances. For a new recruit, an introduction to ACRE is normally reduced to the identification, configuration and use of the default short range radio, the AN/PRC-343.

AN/PRC-343 - Identification and Configuration

The AN/PRC-343 Personal Role Radio (PRR) is a man-portable, advanced Wireless LAN (WLAN) communication radio operating on the 2.4GHz spectrum. Under ideal conditions a range of up to 850m can be achieved however interference or terrain obstruction may reduce effective to 400m or less. Its defining features are its ease of use and light weight making it ideal for use at the rifleman level of a fireteam. Configuration for use is as simple as choosing one of 16 channels on the unit's selector, multiplied by a further 16 blocks for a total of 256 channels.
To define a specific number frequency:

  1. Open the short range radio to screen by double-clicking in inventory or via the ACE self interaction menu,
  2. Using the channel selector, left or right click to move up or down the available channels,
  3. If required remove the PTT handle, identify and adjust the channel block selector,
  4. Press the keyboard Esc (Escape) key to remove the radio from the players screen.

The AN/PRC-343 is now ready for use.

Radio Protocol

The default action key for communicating on a short range radio such as the AN/PRC-343 is player's keyboard Caps Lock key. Refer to Basic Ratel for proper radio communication protocol.

Trainee Outcomes

The trainee is to demonstrate knowledge in this subject by:

  1. Correctly identifying and loading the AN/PRC-343 into his inventory ,
  2. Demonstrating how to change channels with left or right click to increase or decrease channel selection selector dial and/or block dial;
  3. Utilising basic radio protocol communicate a simple radio message between two nodes.

3. Target Indication

For an infantry squad to perform cohesively, identification and communication of the evolving battle space from the point of view of a single soldier is important to the situational awareness and hence effectiveness of the entire unit. This is why it is important that each soldier be proficient in the delivery of information that assists the entire squad remain knowledgeable of important events developing within each individual's field of view.

A Target Indication's delivery is dependent on the tactical situation, but should when possible be thorough, clear and accurate. Three information parts form a complete target indication:

  1. Bearing: The bearing to the target, in degrees from the player;
  2. Distance: The distance to the target, in metres, and
  3. Target: The type of target, composition, reference to other objects and direction of movement (if not stationary).

A Target may be anything of tactical significance, including but not limited to infantry, vehicles, fixed positions, smoke, incoming fire.

For example, a soldier is in defence and observing to the south east witnesses an armed opfor infantry soldier exiting a building. His target Indication would be as follows:

  1. "Bearing 152 degrees";
  2. "Range 250 metres";
  3. "Reference small white house with black roof, one armed infantry soldier exiting by blue door on right side".

Using this example, other members of the squad and the squad commander, while observing other directions are now aware of this development which can help define future decision processes.

Trainee Outcomes

The trainee is to demonstrate knowledge in this subject by:

  1. Using the Target Indication method, competently perform the procedure to describe an observed target to the trainer.

4. Patrolling and Formations

Foot patrolling, unlike a motorised or mechanised infantry capability is an important tactic in closing with an enemy in locales that would make alternatives impractical. Complex terrain inaccessible to transport truck or APC, or the need to leave a small footprint are important reasons why foot patrols are used with high regularity.

The preference for soldiers to rapidly advance toward a way point, disregarding the tactical environment in which they they operate risks the security of the group. In order to increase the survivability of soldiers moving within proximity of enemy locations, methods of movement and observation are adopted in order to maintain a tactical advantage.

Patrolling

Depending on the strategic outcomes desired from patrolling, the method of movement can range from normal walking with weapon lowered or slung to a slow, noise supressed pace with weapon raised and at the ready to fire position. In all scenarios however the objective is always to maintain an awareness of situations developing around the patrol and therefore be prepared to react appropriately and effectively. A patrol may be conducted in locations that range from low risk local security, through to the attempt to locate and engage an enemy force in a foreign warzone. The latter clearly represents a situation where a patrol must develop an acute understanding of the environment in which they occupy, any variables that may change it and what it may be expected to become; otherwise known as the theory of Situational Awareness.
As a soldier patrols, his responsibility is to observe and if necessary report on environmental developments that may affect his, or a group's ability to perform a mission. Observation may be further heightened by a soldier's understanding of the techniques of effective camouflage which if properly administered, gives a patrolling soldier a distinct tactical advantage over an enemy who may fail to follow these important principles:

  1. Shape: There are no perfectly round or straight lines in nature, therefore a rounded helmet or long barrel may be easily recognised as being out of place;
  2. Shine: Shiny objects such as the glint of a rifle optic, the light surface of a soldier's skin or sunglasses may stand out in certain environments where no other shine may naturally exist;
  3. Shadow: The large black shape of a shadow, whether cast by day or night from under a truck, Over Head Cover (OHC) or other large object, may incur unwanted attention due to a stark contrast with its environment;
  4. Silhouette: Against the flat featureless surface of a still lake or against the backdrop of a bright blue sky, the outline of a soldier or vehicle are highly visible. Keeping to the one side of a hill crest rather than on top assists to avoid exposure;
  5. Surface: In a natural environment, vegetation and terrain is naturally eclectic in colour, tone and depth. If the canvas of a truck body is present amongst the randomness of its environment, it like similar examples must be subdued in order to blend in;
  6. Spacing: Like most of the points, blending with your environment rather than against it is advantageous. Similarly observing a vehicle or foot patrol with equidistant separation is easily recognisable;
  7. Speed: It is natural to spot objects moving quickly as it ties into our evolutionary need to acquire prey for the hunt. Just like hunting, a squad's pace if slow enough will be difficult to pick up at greater distances as opposed to high amounts of movement that running generates.

Formations

Formations are a structured relationship between soldiers in a group while they are moving. The purpose of formations is for a soldier to know the location of any other, and allowing the group leader to focus group firepower in a particular direction. Various formation types exist in order to adapt to changing terrain conditions, or the strength and direction of an enemy combat force.
During a patrol and in formation, each soldier in the group has the responsibility of scanning a defensive sector or arc of the perimeter of a formation. Each soldier is to ensure that their arc overlaps the arc of another soldier which ensures all ground is continually and thoroughly observed.

Arcs.JPG
Formation Types

In all types of formation, control of the group is an important task for the squad leader. Should the need arise to maneuver into combat, a well prepared and coordinated formation will be in a far better position to respond to enemy contact. The squad leader is also to ensure that spacing between soldiers is neither too rigid, nor too close in order to minimise the danger to squad members in the event of mines, grenades or indirect fire.

  1. Single File
    • Shape: A line of soldiers following a single person;
    • Uses: Used where terrain like dense jungle or low visibility make the use of any other formation unfeasible;
    • Advantages: Good overall control for the leader, good protection to the flanks;
    • Limitations: Poor protection and fire power potential to the front of rear.
  2. Extended Line:
    • Shape: A line of soldiers shoulder to shoulder, all facing the same axis;
    • Uses: Adopted during an advance to a confirmed enemy position;
    • Advantages: Excellent focus of fire power towards the axis of advance;
    • Limitations: Poor protection to the sides, risk of enfilade fire.
  3. Staggered Column:
    • Shape: Dual line of soldiers following the same axis of advance as a Single File, and soldiers mirror a gap between soldiers in the opposite line;
    • Uses: A traveling or general movement formation, good for clearing road routes where security of the group is important;
    • Advantages: Good protection and fire potential to the flanks with little maneuvering required to achieve. Formation is self guiding if on tasks such as route clearance;
    • Limitations: Poor protection and fire power potential to the front and rear.
  4. Column:
    • Shape: Dual line of soldiers following the same axis of advance as a Single File;
    • Uses: A traveling or general movement formation, good for clearing road routes however security is not priority;
    • Advantages: Some protection and fire potential to the flanks with some maneuvering required to achieve. Formation is self guiding if on tasks such as route clearance;
    • Limitations: Poor protection and fire power potential to the front and rear.
  5. Arrowhead (Wedge):
    • Shape: An inverted Vee shaped formation where like an arrow, the point of the formation is in the axis of advance;
    • Uses: Useful in open, sparsely vegetated terrain with superior observation. Allows the leader to spread out the formation to cover more ground;
    • Advantages: Excellent fire potential to the front and good protection and fire potential to the sides (flanks);
    • Limitations: Difficult formation to control in open areas, poor protection to the rear.
  6. Echelon Left/Right:
    • Shape: Like a Wedge formation, except only one flank or the other is emphasised during movement;
    • Uses: Used where security of front of side of the formation is priority;
    • Advantages: Simple for all soldiers to form an extended line in preparation for combat maneuvers;
    • Limitations: Since protection is focused toward the right or left flank, the rear and opposite flank is poorly protected.
  7. Diamond:
    • Shape: A small square formation with one soldier of the formation leading the axis of advance;
    • Uses: Used where a small footprint is required;
    • Advantages: Good control for a small group of soldiers;
    • Limitations: Poor fire potential in all directions, difficult to maneuver to new formations.

Trainee Outcomes

The trainee is to demonstrate knowledge in this subject by:

  1. Listing patrol considerations;
  2. Describing Situational Awareness;
  3. Demonstrating a formation when instructed;
  4. Describe the use, advantage or limitation of a formation of the trainers choice.

5. Helicopter Infiltration and Exfiltration

A helicopter is a vital asset to the 39th Battalion due to it's flexibility and efficiency in delivering troops into locations otherwise inaccessible or difficult by wheeled or tracked vehicles. Due to weight restrictions however, transport helicopters are not well armoured and therefore adversely affected by small arms fire. The risk additionally is that with the capability of transporting troops and equipment close to enemy positions, a helicopter and the occupants are far more vulnerable to attack. In order to reduce the risk to soldiers and the helicopter when landing and taking off, procedures are adopted that produce a more defensive posture and increase survivability.

Infiltration

Being transported to an LZ (other than known secure) should always be considered potentially hostile. When a helicopter starts its approach to an LZ, all troops must debus from the vehicle ready to fight or defend. Security is important due to the understanding that an attack can potentially originate from any direction. Upon "skids down" an urgent requirement is to establish a defensive perimeter around the aircraft.
The procedure would be as follows:

  1. On approach, the pilot will indicate to the Chalk Commander that the LZ is "60 seconds";
  2. When the helicopter touches ground, the pilot indicates that the vehicle is clear which prompts the Chalk Commander to order all troops to debus;
  3. As all Soldiers debus, individual analysis of the terrain will help determine the best location to set up a defence. Cover is ideal and all soldiers in the Chalk will have found equally suitable locations in which to defend the helicopter in this period;
  4. The Chalk Commander (or Squad Leader) has the sole responsibility of indicating that all soldiers have debussed, in which he communicates to the pilot "last man";
  5. The pilot is now clear to take off.
Trainee Outcomes

The trainee is to demonstrate knowledge in this subject by:

  1. Not debussing from the aircraft until the order is given;
  2. Moving quickly to a defensive position and preferably in cover;
  3. Not occupy a position that is already adequately defended;
  4. Follow instructions only when ordered.

Exfiltration

Exfiltration of troops by helicopter may be considered more strategically challenging to a commander than infiltration. In areas of high risk, the commander may no longer possess a tactical advantage particularly if withdrawing from combat. His position may be known, enemy presence may be high and still maneuvering and his desired transport system will take time to arrive. These considerations therefore give rise to how important it is that procedures are in place for the secure extract of personnel in high risk LZ's.
When an LZ is nominated by a commander (and approved by the pilot), the commander may already have his squad or platoon in an all-round defensive posture. If the squad is not optimally positioned, the commander may move the defence until there is sufficient space for a helicopter to safely land or hover. Once the helicopter is in position for boarding, the following procedure will take place:

  1. The commander pre-selects two distinct teams of his squad or platoon, numbered 1 or 2;
  2. Team 1, positioned around the perimeter of the LZ, compress towards the helicopter, but DO NOT board;
  3. Team 1 is now positioned closest to the helicopter in a tighter all-round defence;
  4. Team 2, in the larger original defence, compress and immediately board the helicopter;
  5. Once Team 2 are aboard, Team 1 then boards;
  6. The commander coordinating the procedures boards last indicating to the pilot that he is "last man";
  7. The pilot lifts and egresses on pre-determined flight route.
Trainee Outcomes

The trainee is to demonstrate knowledge in this subject by:

  1. Adopting a defence in a suitable location around an LZ;
  2. Correctly carrying out the procedure of Team 1 or Team 2 as nominated;
  3. Follow instructions only when ordered.

6. Section Weapon Familiarisation and Qualification

In the modern Infantry Section, a variety of specialised fighting roles exist in which dependencies are placed to be combat effective when demanded. When playing Arma 3 it is implied that a person may have the rudimentary skills required to operate a firearm in order to kill an enemy at its effective range. When a player joins a group such as the 39th Battalion and the adoption of enhanced weapon systems within the scope of cooperative play, it is important for a member to demonstrate that they are confident in the capability a weapon to win a fight. The opportunity missed to become weapon familiar potentially gives rise to delays in combat that potentially places the player and the group that depends on him at life threatening risk.

A member of a Fireteam must prove to be effective in the identification, handling and firing of the following weapon systems:

Austeyr AUG F88SA2 Rifle

The Austeyr AUG is a 5.56×45mm NATO bullpup assault rifle and is the issue weapon of the 39th Battalion. The F88SA2 improves on previous models by introducing a longer Picatinny Rail on top of the weapon, a modified sight housing, a side rail mount for a torch and Night Aiming Device (NAD).

Application Ammunition Ammunition Capacity Cyclic Rate Muzzle Velocity Effective Range Used by
Infantry 5.56mm × 45mm NATO 30 Round Box Magazine 680–750 Rounds Per Minute 970 metres/second 300 metres Fireteam Leader, Grenadier, Combat First Aid
Trainee Outcomes

The trainee is to demonstrate proficiency in this weapon by:

  1. Add to inventory F88-SA2 Austeyr and load 30 round magazine,
  2. On order, fire 10 rounds each at competition targets located at 100m, 200m, 300m,
  3. A score of 5 or more hits on each distance range constitutes a pass,
  4. There is no time limit.
FN F89 Minimi Light Support Weapon (LSW)
Application Ammunition Ammunition Capacity Cyclic Rate Muzzle Velocity Effective Range Used by
Infantry, Support 5.56mm × 45mm NATO 200 Round Box Magazine 700–1150 Rounds Per Minute 925 metres/second 300 - 1000 metres Gunner
Trainee Outcomes

The trainee is to demonstrate proficiency in this weapon by:

  1. Add to inventory F89 Minimi and 200 round box magazine
M203 Grenade Launcher Attachment (GLA)

The M203 is an under-barrel attachment designed for use with the Austeyr F88SA2. 40mm High Explosive Fragmentation, Smoke, Illumination and Infra-Red Parachute Camera cartridges are deployable from the GLA at ranges of up 400m. Its ability however to engage concentrations of infantry with grenades is the most recognised role of the GLA and works as a "force-multiplier" for a section in combat.

Application Ammunition Ammunition Capacity Cyclic Rate Muzzle Velocity Effective Range Used by
Grouped Infantry, Light Motorised 40mm HE, Smoke, Illumination, Flare, IR Camera 1 Round (up to 40 HE rounds carried in Fireteam) 5 - 7 Rounds Per Minute 76 metres/second 150 metres (400 metres maximum) Grenadier
Trainee Outcomes

The trainee is to demonstrate proficiency in this weapon by:

  1. Collect 1x F88SA2 GLA and 10 rounds 40mm High Explosive and 1x 40mm Smoke,
  2. Collect 1x Vector Nite II Binoculars,
  3. On order, fire 1 round 40mm High Explosive at 10 designated by tester,
  4. A score of 5 or more target hits with HE constitutes a pass,
  5. Change ammunition to 40mm Smoke and fire at target designated by tester (hit not scored).
Heckler & Koch KH417 Marksman Rifle

The HK417 is intended to complement the Austeyr F88SA2 chambered with the less powerful intermediate cartridges, for the designated marksman's role. The HK417's greater accuracy, effective range, and penetration offset its greater expense, its lower rate of fire, and its smaller ammunition capacity both in magazine and carriage.

Application Ammunition Ammunition Capacity Cyclic Rate Muzzle Velocity Effective Range Used by
Infantry 7.62mm x 51mm NATO 20 Round Box Magazine 600 Rounds Per Minute 750 metres/second 600 metres Marksman
Trainee Outcomes

The trainee is to demonstrate proficiency in this weapon by:

M72A6 Light Direct Support Weapon (LDSW)

The M72 LDSW is a portable one-shot 66-mm unguided anti-tank weapon issued to satisfy the requirement for an anti-structure/armour capability at the Infantry Section level. The M72's low weight assists to prevent impeding a section's maneuverability, however the weapon quickly becomes ineffective at longer ranged, or heavily armoured targets where the 84mm Medium Range Anti Armour Weapon (MRAAW) would be favoured.

Application Ammunition Ammunition Capacity Muzzle Velocity Effective Range Used by
Anti Structure, Anti Armour 66mm Solid Rocket Propulsion HEAT 1 Round, factory loaded 145 metres/second 200 metres Grenadier, Marksman
Trainee Outcomes

The trainee is to demonstrate proficiency in this weapon by:

Browning Hi-Power 9mm Pistol
Application Ammunition Ammunition Capacity Muzzle Velocity Effective Range Used by
All
Trainee Outcomes

The trainee is to demonstrate proficiency in this weapon by:

M67 Hand Grenade (Interim)
Application Ammunition Ammunition Capacity Muzzle Velocity Effective Range Used by
Infantry, Anti-fortification N/A N/A N/A 30 - 35m thrown, effective kill radius 15m All
Trainee Outcomes

The trainee is to demonstrate proficiency in this weapon by:

References

Definitions

  • LZ: Acronym for Landing Zone. A location, either marked or unmarked for the purpose of helicopter landing and/or takeoff;
  • Enfilade: Used to describe when an engagement on a body of soldiers is performed from the body's flank.